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26-Jun-2017 22:23

The Christian quarter was even surrounded by a wall, and some Amalfi merchants, vassals of the Greek emperors, built hospices in Jerusalem for pilgrims, e.g. Not only princes, bishops, and knights, but even men and women of the humbler classes undertook the holy journey ( Radulphus Glaber, IV, vi).

Whole armies of pilgrims traversed Europe, and in the valley of the Danube hospices were established where they could replenish their provisions.

against Mohammedans, pagans, heretics, or those under the ban of excommunication.

In reality the Crusades continued until the end of the seventeenth century, the crusade of Lepanto occurring in 1571, that of Hungary in 1664, and the crusade of the Duke of Burgundy to Candia, in 1669. First destruction of the Christian states (1144-87); IV. Final loss of the Christian colonies of the East (1254-91); VIII.

A more scientific division is based on the history of the Christian settlements in the East; therefore the subject will be considered in the following order: I. Attempts to restore the Christian states and the crusade against Saint-Jean d'Acre (1192-98); V. The fourteenth-century crusade and the Ottoman invasion; IX. Modifications and survival of the idea of the crusade.

The popes alone had maintained a just estimate of Christian unity ; they realized to what extent the interests of Europe were threatened by the Byzantine Empire and the Mohammedan tribes, and they alone had a foreign policy whose traditions were formed under Leo IX and Gregory VII.

The reform effected in the Church and the papacy through the influence of the monks of Cluny had increased the prestige of the Roman pontiff in the eyes of all Christian nations; hence none but the pope could inaugurate the international movement that culminated in the Crusades.

In Rome, on 30 November, 800, the very day on which Leo III invoked the arbitration of Charlemagne, ambassadors from Haroun al-Raschid delivered to the King of the Franks the keys of the Holy Sepulchre, the banner of Jersualem, and some precious relics (Einhard, "Annales", ad an. That churches and monasteries were built at Charlemagne's expense is attested by a sort of a census of the monasteries of Jerusalem dated 808 ("Commemoratio de Casis Dei" in "Itiner. In 870, at the time of the pilgrimage of Bernard the Monk (Itiner.

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