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Such precipitates usually occur in elevated or unvegetated areas, where water evaporates and leaves salt behind. Such salt crusts, which can be detected on satellite images, are not reliable evidence of high salinity in the root zone. To assess the extent of salinity, modelling is often required. Changes in the reflectance, composition and morphology of a single leaf can be used to detect salinity effects at an early stage. Mougenot, Pouget and Epema (1993) noted that "visible reflectance of leaves from plants growing on salt-affected soils is lower than reflectance of non-salt-affected leaves before plant maturation and higher after. One of the main problems of dealing with large areas is lack of information about water-balance components. RS can provide useful information for large-area water and salt balances and identification of parameters such as evapo-transpiration, rainfall distribution, interception losses and crop types and intensities that can be used as indirect measures of salinity and waterlogging and as evidence for direct estimates (Ahmad, 1999). The contribution of false-colour composites and visual interpretations is demonstrated in studies from India given in Table 2. Predicting soil-drainage class using remotely sensed and digital elevation data. Geomorphological patterns are helpful in distinguishing salinization. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63(2): 171-178.
GIS and RS techniques can play an important role in monitoring soil to locate and evaluate the extent of saline areas and improve the situation through enhanced understanding. THE ROLE OF RS IN IDENTIFYING WATERLOGGING AND SALINITY Satellite images can help in assessing the extent of waterlogged and saline areas and monitoring the extent and severity of changes in real time.